UTokyo Research

  • Japanese
  • English
SearchClose
LanguageClose
  • 日本語
  • 英語
Research News

A telomere structure specialized for meiosis

Molecular reaction fusing telomeric DNA to the nuclear membrane

Tags

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences
2015/12/15

© 2015 Yoshinori WatanabeMAJIN localizes to the meiotic telomeres (left top) and constructs the membrane-fused telomeric structure (left bottom). The meiosis-specific telomere structure has been established, which is distinct from the conventional telomere structure constructed by the shelterin protein.

The fusion of telomere DNA and the nuclear membrane in meiosis
MAJIN localizes to the meiotic telomeres (left top) and constructs the membrane-fused telomeric structure (left bottom). The meiosis-specific telomere structure has been established, which is distinct from the conventional telomere structure constructed by the shelterin protein.
© 2015 Yoshinori Watanabe

A University of Tokyo research group has discovered two proteins, MAJIN and TERB2, and the molecular process by which they bind chromosomes to the membrane enclosing the cell’s nucleus during meiosis, the process of cell division that leads to the creation of sex cells in sexually reproducing organisms. This discovery provides important insights for investigating human disorders caused by meiotic errors, such as congenital birth defects and miscarriages.

In order to faithfully transmit their genetic information to their progeny, eukaryotic species (those whose cells have a distinct nucleus) have evolved a specialized cell division process termed meiosis that produces germ cells – such as sperm and eggs – with half the number of chromosomes of a normal cell. Telomeres, long caps of repeating nucleotides at the end of each chromosome, have been implicated in the process of chromosome segregation during meiosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism has remained unknown.

The research group of Professor Yoshinori Watanabe at the Institute of Molecular Cellular Biosciences discovered two meiosis-specific telomere-binding proteins in mice, MAJIN and TERB2, that bind to telomeric DNA and link it to the nuclear envelope, creating the membrane-fused telomere structure characteristic of meiosis, and described the molecular mechanism by which this structure is formed. Telomeric DNA is usually masked by a protein complex named shelterin, but MAJIN and TERB2 are able to take over telomeric DNA from shelterin. The structure is disrupted in genetically modified mice that cannot produce MAJIN and TERB2, leading to defects in meiotic progression and, ultimately, complete inability to produce sperm or eggs.

“As a result, we conclude that MAJIN and TERB2 are essential structural components of meiotic telomeres in mammals,” says Professor Watanabe. He continues, “The current findings provide us with important clues to understanding and resolving human problems caused by errors in the process of meiosis, which include congenital birth defects and miscarriages.”

Press release (Japanese)

Paper

Hiroki Shibuya, Abrahan Hernandez-Hernandez, Akihiro Morimoto, Lumi Negishi, Christer Höög, Yoshinori Watanabe, "MAJIN Links Telomeric DNA to the Nuclear Membrane by Exchanging Telomere Cap", Cell 163(5) 1252-1266, doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.030.
Article link (Publication)

Links

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences

Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences

Research News: Discovery of master regulator of meiosis-specific chromosome segregation

Previous post Next post
Page Top