illustration of animals holding PCs in the boat


Illustrations and diagrams AI To Shakai (AI and Society - Engaging with Technology to Open the Future)


EMA Arisa


192 pages, B5 format




May 21, 2021



Published by

Gijutsu-Hyoron Co., Ltd.

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AI To Shakai

Japanese Page

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) cannot be separated from our society. AI is now an important technology and concept when considering the future and the infrastructure of our society.
This book, which is also part of the “Illustrations and Diagrams” series, uses illustrations and cartoons to explain issues related to AI and society in an easy-to-understand manner. One of the most important points to emphasize is that the vision of the future that AI and future society portray involves a variety of value choices regarding the kind of society we want to live in. In Chapter 1, "Value Tradeoffs Brought about by AI" (Figure 1), presents some examples of tradeoffs; for example, an "environmentally conscious society" that takes energy efficiency into consideration is inextricably linked to a "management society" that guides people's behavior, and that a "diversified society" that creates a community where people can share various interests is simultaneously a "homogenized society" that is not exposed to a variety of other values.

Illustrations and diagrams: AI To Shakai” (Gijutsu-Hyoron Co., Ltd., 2020, p.10-11)
The introduction of AI into society also poses various challenges. As shown in Figure 2, AI technology generates images and sounds that can be misused and spread misinformation. Another problem is that AI algorithms and training data are biased, which leads to discriminatory judgments by AI. Furthermore, there are many issues facing us today, such as how AI will change the way we work, and concerns that it will be used for military purposes.

Illustrations and diagrams: AI To Shakai” (Gijutsu-Hyoron Co., Ltd., 2020, p.18-19)
How to respond to these conflicts and challenges will require a combination of AI technology, design, people's perceptions, and social institutions in the governance of AI. Chapters 2 to 5 introduce what current AI technologies can do, what we should consider in a social system, and what we can do in terms of how technology and society interact and explain themselves to each other.
The relationship between "AI and society" is one in which AI has deeply entered our society and lives almost unnoticed, bringing many benefits, but also causing various challenges. In Chapter 7, the author asks the question of what we can do and explains the importance of companies and developers, as well as each of us as consumers and users of AI, in considering the future vision discussed in Chapter 1. This book considers how we should interact with technology and rethink our society through the lens of AI.


(Written by EMA Arisa, Associate Professor, Institute for Future Initiatives / 2023)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Future is Multiple
1-1 Think about Society of the Future
1-2 Tradeoffs of Value Brought by AI
1-3 Relationship between People and AI
1-4 World Map of AI and Society
1-5 AI and Vision of the Future
1-6 Various Issues Concerning AI
1-7 Outline of This Book
Chapter 2: Let's Learn the Basics of AI Technology
2-1 Technology and Environment Supporting AI
2-2 History and Winter of AI
2-3 What Machines Learning AI Can Do
2-4 How to Make Machines Learn
2-5 Necessary Procedures for Learning
2-6 Using the Brain Mechanism
2-7 From Neural Networks to Deep Learning
2-8 AI Research Fields and its Expansion
Chapter 3: Let's Explore the Challenges of AI Technology
3-1 How to Create an AI System: Think of it as Cooking
3-2 Quality Assurance
3-3 Explainability and Transparency
3-4 Semantic Understanding and Common Sense
3-5 Robustness
3-6 Generation
3-7 Transfer Learning
3-8 Democratization of AI
Chapter 4: Be Aware of Social Issues Caused by AI Technology
4-1 Case Files of Lost Detective AI
4-2 Reasons for Problems
4-3 Data and Datasets
4-4 Algorithms and Social Issues
4-5 Profiling
4-6 Social Fragmentation
4-7 Fake and Hate Speech
4-8 Privacy and Identity Protection
4-9 Security and Safety
Chapter 5: Designing Technology and Society
5-1 How to Create AI Systems: Evaluation and Coordination
5-2 Interface Design
5-3 Who Develops and Evaluates AI
5-4 Pursuit of Humanity
5-5 Pursuit of Human-like Conversation
5-6 Pursuit of Human-like Appearance and Behavior
5-7 How to Explain AI Systems
5-8 Designing Life and Death for Humans and Machines
Chapter 6: Let's Review the Issues Facing Society
6-1 How to Live and Work with AI
6-2 Work and Tasks
6-3 What to Entrust to Machines
6-4 Improvement and Innovation
6-5 Challenges of Data Utilization
6-6 AI Governance
6-7 Human Involvement and Risk Response
6-8 Responsibility and Reliability
6-9 Dual-Use and Military Applications
Chapter 7 What Can We Do?
7-1 Think about the Future We Want to Achieve
7-2 Design for Inclusion and Exclusion
7-3 Design Philosophy and Bi-Design
7-4 What We Can Do
Osamu Tezuka Project
Considering the Trolley Problem
Task Separation Workshop
COVID-19 and Data Governance
Risk Chain Model (RCModel)
Book guide to better understand AI and society
Reference Websites

Related Info

Related website:
Institute for Future Initiatives: Technology Governance Policy Research Unite – AI Governance Project

Correspondence and Fusion of Artificial Intelligence and Brain Science
Newsletter: Golems, Cyborgs, and Artificial Intelligence  (“AI and Brain”vol.8  Oct, 2020)

Advancing AI Ethics in Japan: A Q&A with Dr. Arisa Ema, Professor at University of Tokyo  (Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada  Feb 25, 2020)
UTokyo 30s No.8: EMA Arisa - A “general health practitioner” of AI and society  (“Tansei”vol.39  Nov. 19, 2019)
Women in AI: Arisa Ema | From principles to practices: Building an AI governance ecosystem  (Schwartz Reisman Institute  March 2, 2023)

Taiwanese version:
江間有沙『超圖解 AI與未來社會:建立數位時代的科技素養,強化邏輯力×創造力×思考力』 (台灣東販 2022)
Korean version is in progress as well

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